LBASNAA Daily Current Affairs + PIB: 8 December 2018
GS Paper 2
Issues relating to the development and management of Social Sector or Services relating to Health
Sub Topic- Vaccination
it is one of the largest public health program started by the Ministry of Health & Family Welfare in 2014, where name Indradhanush is christened after the seven colors of the rainbow, each color of which signify a Vaccine. Under this seven vaccines would be given to all those children and pregnant women who have missed out or are left out under the routine immunization rounds.
Immunization against seven vaccine preventable diseases which include diphtheria, whooping cough, tetanus, polio, tuberculosis, measles, and hepatitis B
Funding- No separate funds are allocated for Mission Indradhanush. Funds allocated for Routine Immunization under part ‘C’ of Programme Implementation Plan (PIP) are being utilized by the states to carry out activities under Mission Indradhanush.
Mission Indradhanush does not target to reduce postnatal death rate but targets to reduce diseases and death due to vaccine-preventable diseases.
Target: earlier target was at least 90% coverage till 2020.
Due to the fast pace of immunization by MI/IMI, now we aim to achieve 90 percent immunization by December 2019.
Intensified Mission Indradhanush(IMI)
Mission Indradhunush (MI) has been transformed into “Intensified Mission Indradhanush”(IMI) that aims to reach rural and urban slums that have underperformed during MI.
“Let no child suffer from any vaccine-preventable disease“-PM MODI. This was stated by Prime Minister Shri Narendra Modi as he launched the Intensified Mission Indradhanush (IMI) at Vadnagar in Gujarat on 8 October 2017. Through this programme, Government of India aims to reach each and every child under two years of age and all those pregnant women who have been left uncovered under the routine immunization programme.
There is a sharper focus on surveillance activities and to create partnerships with states, community-level departments, and ministries for grass root level implementation and monitoring.
Universal Immunisation Programme:
It targets to vaccinate about 27 million children against 12 deadly diseases every year.
Challenges faced by India:
- Low full immunization coverage(65 percent)
- Limited basket of vaccines
- Issues related to quality and logistics of vaccine management for such a vast and diverse country.
Achievements of Mission Indradhanush:
- Increase in immunization coverage: India’s full immunization program coverage (FIC), which used to be 61 percent in 2009, improved to 65% in 2013 at a meager increase rate of 1 percent per year. Mission Indradhanush has led to an impressive increase of close 7 percent in full immunization coverage in one year as compared to a 1 percent increase per year in the past.
- Decline in Under Five Mortality Rates: The under-five mortality rates have declined considerably from 126/1000 live births in 1990 to 39/1000 in 2017, much faster than the global rates.
- Journey towards UIP: The journey of Universal Immunisation Program (UIP), which India embarked upon in1985, has thus been further bolstered by Mission Indradhanush/Intensified Mission Indradhanush.
- Preponement of Target: earlier target was at least 90% coverage till 2020. Due to the fast pace of immunization by MI/IMI, now we aim to achieve 90 percent immunization by December 2019.
- Ona global scale, MI/IMI is meant to reduce India’s contribution to the global burden of disease, including deaths in children under five, thereby achieving SDG-3 by 2030.
Source: Indian Express: Editorial Page
GS Paper 3: Topic:Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment.
GS Paper 2: Issues relating to the development and management of Social Sector or Services relating to Health
Sub Topic- Air Pollution and Health
How Grave the Situation is in India:
- A recent World Health Organisation report has revealed that 14 out of the 15 most polluted cities in the world are in India.
- The Lancet Journal of Planetary Health points out that polluted air is a cause of one in eight deaths in the country, the study says.
- Conducted as part of the India State-Level Disease Burden Initiative, it points out that “the average life expectancy in the country would have been 1.7 years higher if the air pollution were less than the level at which health is harmed”.
Ad-hoc Measures :
These disturbing revelations underline that India’s battle against air pollution needs much more than ad-hoc reactions such as bans, fines and shutting down of power stations.
The India State-Level Disease Burden Initiative is a collaboration between the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Indian Council of Medical Research, Public Health Foundation of India, Institute of Health Metrics and Evaluation and experts from more than 100 institutions.
There has been scarcely any collaboration between the ministries of health and the environment. It has been known for more than a decade that the failure of public transport systems to cope with the rapid pace of urbanization has aggravated the burden of air pollution-related diseases.
This shortcoming has reduced the National Clean Air Programme (NCAP) to a mere data gathering exercise with little effect on mitigating the effects of pollution. The Inter State-Level Disease Burden Initiative could meet the same fate if pollution control and public health authorities do not break their silos.
Sources: Indian Express- Editorial Page